Yes, but it takes some work. The transparent modules are generally the physical radio only, so a mesh networking protocol can be used in an external microcontroller. The wireless UART modules offer some additional features and can act as the PHY and MAC layers. An external microcontroller can be used for the mesh networking logic.
There are many ways to make a mesh network; some fairly simple and others are very complex. Creating a mesh network can involve significant software and firmware development and require strong experience with wireless communications. For this reason, we generally recommend choosing a product with mesh networking integrated if it is determined that a mesh network is really needed.